The Power of Laziness

Posted on 2016-5-16

Lazy evaluation is a strong tool. With some effort it was always possible to use this in the Java language, but now it's easier than ever.

I was using streams to process structured data from a web API. They contained nested references to more data, and this could go on possibly infinitely. So, obviosuly memory was a constraint. Streams are already lazy, items are not fetched until necessary (except for some optimizations). However, there is no facility to concatenate streams lazily on demand.

Proposed solution 1:

public class LazyConcat {
  public static <T> Stream<T> lazyConcat(
    Stream<T> first, 
    Supplier<Stream<T>> secondSupplier) {
    return Stream.of(() -> first, secondSupplier)

Here flatMap is effectively concatenating the two streams. The second stream is only created when the supplier's get method is called, and that only happens once the stream processing pipeline needs more items.

The second stream, once created, can itself be a lazy concatenation of two streams. As a result we could do this infinitely... were it not for the inevitable StackOverflowError. So, even though this solution is lazy, it doesn't scale well.

Proposed solution 2:

Conceptually, a trampoline is some code that invokes a function, and if that function returns a new function it invokes that one and repeats this process until the returned value is no longer a function. This is a way to do recursion without actually consuming stack space. Invented here is the StreamBounce, which is a pointer to the current stream plus a way to get the next pointer.

LazyConcat.trampoline creates an iterator which returns all items in the current stream and advances the StreamBounce pointer until there is no "next" bounce. The pointer is changed in place and there is no recursion. This solution can generate infinite streams.

public class LazyConcat {
  public static <T> Stream<T> trampoline(
    Supplier<StreamBounce<T>> bouncer) {
    // Anonymous inner class doing all the work
    Iterator<? extends T> iterator = new Iterator<T>() {
      private Iterator<T> currentIterator = null;
      private StreamBounce currentBounce = null;

      // lazy init the firt stream on demand
      public Iterator<T> getCurrentIterator() {
        if (currentIterator == null) {
          currentBounce = bouncer.get();
          currentIterator = currentBounce.getCurrent().iterator();
        return currentIterator;

      // only return false if:
      //  - the current stream has no more elements
      //  - there is no next bounce
      public boolean hasNext() {
        if (!getCurrentIterator().hasNext()) {
          if (currentBounce != null) {
            // advance the pointer
            Supplier<StreamBounce> b = currentBounce.getNextBouncer();
            currentBounce = b == null ? null : b.get();
          if (currentBounce == null) {
            return false;
        return true;

      public T next() {
        if (!getCurrentIterator().hasNext() && currentBounce != null) {
          currentIterator = currentBounce.getCurrent().iterator();
        return getCurrentIterator().next();
    // return stream built from the spliterator built from the iterator
public class StreamBounce <T> {
  private Stream<T> current;
  private Supplier<StreamBounce<T>> nextBouncer;